Fertilizer is any material of natural or synthetic originthat is applied to soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants

Primary Nutrients

NITROGEN – It is an important component of many important structural, genetic and metabolic compounds in plant cells. It is a major component of chlorophyll, the compound by which plants use sunlight energy to produce sugars from water and carbon dioxide (i.e. photosynthesis). It is also a major component of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

PHOSPHORUS – It is an essential nutrient both as a part of several key plant structure compounds and as a catalyst in the conversion of numerous key biochemical reactions in plants. Phosphorus is noted especially for its role in capturing and converting the sun’s energy into useful plant compounds.

POTASH - It plays a vital role in Photosynthesis, Translocation of photosynthates, Protein synthesis, Control of ionic balance, Regulation of plant stomata and water use and Activation of plant enzymes. It is known to activate at least sixty enzymes involved in plant growth and this may be its most important function in the plant. Plants deficient in potassium are less resistant to drought, excess water, and high and low temperatures.

Secondary Nutrients

CALCIUM – It improves the absorption of other nutrients by roots and their translocation within the plant. It activates a number of plant growth-regulating enzyme systems, helps convert nitrate-nitrogen into forms needed for protein formation, is needed for cell wall formation and normal cell division, and contributes to improved disease resistance. Calcium, along with magnesium and potassium, helps to neutralize organic acids, which form during cell metabolism in plants.

MAGNESIUM - It is required for crops to capture the sun's energy for growth and production. Chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants, is the site where photosynthesis occurs without chlorophyll plants could not manufacture food. Magnesium is an essential component of the chlorophyll molecule, with each molecule containing 6.7 percent magnesium. Its functions include phosphate metabolism, plant respiration, and activation of enzyme systems.

SULPHUR - It is part of every living cell and required for synthesis of certain amino acids (cysteine and methionine) and proteins. Sulphur is also important for photosynthesis and crop winter hardiness. Leguminous plants need sulphur for efficient nitrogen fixation. Sulphur is also important in the nitrate-reductase process where nitrate-nitrogen is converted to amino acids.


Iron – It is essential for chlorophyll formation and synthesis of proteins and several metabolic reactions.

Copper - Copper is necessary for carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism

Zinc - Zinc is an essential component of various enzyme systems for energy production, protein synthesis, and growth regulation. It plays a key role in the formation of pigment Which has critical effect on fruit colouring.

Manganese – It is necessary in photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and to form other compounds required for plant metabolism.

Boron – It is very important in cell wall synthesis, Water vascular systems and stability of the link between cells.

Molybdenum – It is involved in enzyme systems relating to nitrogen fixation by bacteria growing symbiotically with legumes. Nitrogen metabolism, protein synthesis and sulfur metabolism are also affected by molybdenum. Molybdenum has a significant effect on pollen formation, so fruit and grain formation are affected in molybdenum-deficient plants.